Cretan Travels 2020

This site has been prepared for the participants of the Cretan Trip in May 2020, and it is revised/enriched on a weekly or bi-weekly basis.

Crete: Archaeological Sites

Προς Κρήτα κρητίζειν (outfoxing the fox)

PERIODISATION (or understanding the different periods of Cretan history and archaeology) – VERY USEFUL

(excerpt from Moody and Rackham, The Making of the Cretan Landscape)


Andreadaki-Vlazaki, M., and L. Platon, “Crete: Prehistoric Times,” in Archaeology: Aegean Islands, ed. A. Vlachopoulos, Athens 2006.

Driessen, J. “The Santorini eruption. An archaeological investigation of its distal impacts
on Minoan Crete,” Quaternary International 499 (2019) 195–204. (the latest but not last review of this topic).

Brogan, T. and N. Vogeikoff, “Crete: Historical Times,” in Archaeology: Aegean Islands, ed. A. Vlachopoulos, Athens 2006.

Moody, J. A. and O. Rackham. The Making of the Cretan Landscape, Manchester 1994.
Preface, maps, and Chapter 8 (People and Settlements)
Chapter 16 (Sacred Landscapes)

The finest undergraduate course on the Bronze Age Aegean is available online (narrative, images and bibliography):
For Crete, the pertinent classes are:
Lessons 1-2: Paleolithic-Neolithic Aegean
Lessons 5-6: Prepalatial Crete
Lessons 10-11:  First Palace Period Crete
Lessons 12-18: Second Palace Period Crete
Lesson 25: Mycenaean Linear B administration
Shaw, J. “North American Archaeological Work in Crete, 1880 to 1990,” Expedition Magazine 32:3, 1990, pp. 6-14.


Andreadaki-Vlazaki, M. Khania (Kydonia): A Tour to Sites of Ancient Memory, Athens 2009.

Apostolakou, V. Lato, Athens 2005.

Chaniotis, A. (ed.), From Minoan Farmers to Roman traders: Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete, Stuttgart 1999.
–“Milking the Mountains: Economic Activities on the Cretan Uplands in the Classical and Hellenistic Periods” (Chaniotis)

Georgopoulou, M. Venice’s Mediterranean Colonies: Architecture and Urbanism, Cambridge 2001.

Haggis, D. C . “Excavations at Azoria and Stratigraphic Evidence for the Restructuring of Cretan Landscapes ca. 600 BCE,” in Cultural Practices and Material Culture in Archaic and Classical Crete, ed. O. Pilz and G. Seelentag, Berlin 2014, pp. 11-39.

Hamilakis, Y. and N. Momigliano (eds.), Archaeology and European Modernity: Producing and Consuming the “Minoans,” Creta Antica 7 (2006), Padova 2006.
–“Minoans in Modern Greek Literature” (R. Beaton)

Kourou, N. “Following the Sphinx: Tradition and Innovation in Early Iron Age Crete,” in Identità culturale, etnicità, processi di transformazione a Creta fra Dark Age e Arcaismo, Convegno di Studi, Atene 9-12 novembre 2006, ed. G. Rizza, Catania 2011, pp. 165-177.

MacGillivray, J. A. Minotaur: Sir Arthur Evans and the Archaeology of the Minoan Myth, London 2000.

Perlman, P. “Invocatio and Imprecatio: The Hymn to the Greatest Kouros from Palaikastro and the Oath in Ancient Crete,” JHS 115 (1995), pp. 61-67.

Perlman, P. “KRETES AEI LEISTAI? The Marginalization of Crete in Greek thought and the Role of Piracy in the Outbreak of the First Cretan War,” in Hellenistic Rhodes: Politics, Culture, and Society, ed. V. Gabrielsen et. al., Aarhus 1999, pp. 132-161 (esp. pp. 137-139).

Perlman, P. “Gortyn. The First Seven Hundred Years (Part I),” in Polis and Politics. Studies in Ancient Greek History Presented to Mogens Herman Hansen on his Sixtieth Birthday, August 20, 2000, Copenhagen 2000, pp. 59-89 (esp. Conclusions, pp. 77-78).

Perlman, P. “Gortyn. The First Seven Hundred Years (Part II),” in Even More Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis. Papers from the Copenhagen Polis Centre, vol. 6, Jan 1, 2002, Stuttgart 2002, pp. 187-227 (esp. Conclusions, pp. 212-214)

Perlman, P. The Laws of Ancient Crete, c. 650-400 BCE, Oxford 2016.

Small, D. B. Ancient Greece: Social Structure and Evolution, Cambridge 2019.
–“The Cretan Difference” (Chapter 10) – Mostly about the Azorias excavations and Crete in the 6th century B.C.

Stampolidis, N. (ed.), Crete: Emerging Cities. Aptera, Eleutherna, Knossos, Athens 2019.

Sweetman, R. The Mosaics of Roman Crete: Art, Archaeology, and Social Change, Cambridge 2013.

Tsougarakis, D. Byzantine Crete from the 5th Century to the Venetian Conquest, Athens 1988.
–“The Arab Conquest” (pp. 30-39)


Find below basic information (in most cases excerpts from publications cited above) about many of the sites we will visit during the trip.

(excerpt from Stampolidis, Crete: Emerging Cities)

–M. S. Mook and D. C. Haggis, “Excavation of an Archaic City at Azoria in Eastern Crete,” in Kreta in der geometrischen und archaischen Zeit, ed. W.-D.Niemeier, O. Pilz, and I. Kaiser, Munich 2013, pp. 59-79.
–D. Small, “The Archaic Polis of Azoria: A Window into Cretan ‘Polital’ Social Structure,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 23:2, 2010, 197-217.

Chania (ancient Kydonia)
[excerpt from Andreadaki-Vlazaki, Khania (Kydonia)]

(excerpt from Perlman, The Laws of Ancient Crete, pp. 263-266)


–T. Whitelaw, M. Bredaki, and A. Vasilakis, “The Long-Term Dynamics of Knossos in Context,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cretan Studies, Herakleion, 21-25. 9. 2016, (
–J. Cutler and T. Whitelaw, “Neopalatial and Mycenaean Knossos: Urban Expansion and Collapse,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Cretan Studies, Herakleion, 21-25. 9. 2016, (

(excerpt from Joseph W. Shaw, Kommos: A Minoan Harbor Town and Greek Sanctuary in Southern Crete, Princeton 2006)




(except for the two articles below, almost all other bibliography about Prinias is in Italian)
–A. Pautasso and S. Rizza, “Prinias: The Archaic City. New Perspectives in Excavations, Data Management and
–A. Pautasso, “[Prinias]: New Research in the Area of Temple A,” in Kreta in der geometrischen und archaischen Zeit, ed. W.-D.Niemeier, O. Pilz, and I. Kaiser, Munich 2013, pp. 79-85.



Agia Triada Tsangarolon (1634) – For an English summary go to p. 245; also read about Italian architect Sebastiano Serlio (1475-1554) whose “libro estraordinario” influenced the Creto-Venetian patrons of the monastery.

Arkadi Monastery
Also Adrianakis, M. “Το οικοδομικό χρονικό της Μονής Αρκαδίου,” Νέα Χριστιανική Κρήτη 32 (2013), pp, 13-50. (Article in Greek; check the plans, however, to see similarities with Agia Triada Tsangarolon and influence of Sebastiano Serlio.)

Church of Panagia Kera at Kritsa (13th-14th century with Venetian influence)
Also for the glass objects depicted on the frescoes, see Parani, M.G. “Representations of Glass Objects as a Source on Byzantine Glass: How Useful Are They?” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 59, 2005, pp. 147-171.

St. George and Charalambos at Episkopi near Ierapetra  (originally a tripartite Byzantine bath of the 11th century was converted to a church during the Venetian period).
See also Mylopotamitaki, K. “O ναός των Αγίων Γεωργίου και Χαραλάμπους στην Επισκοπή Ιεράπετρας,” ΧΑΕ 12, 1984, pp. 441-452. (Article in Greek but check the plan and section of the church on p. 442 and the English summary on p. 452.)

For a nice and brief introduction to Venetian architecture on Crete, see O. Gratziou, “Cretan Architecture and Sculpture in Venetian Crete,” in The Origins of El Greco: Icon Painting in Venetian Crete, ed. A. Drandaki, New York 2009, pp. 18-27.


Rhea Galanaki,  The Life of Ismail Ferik Pasha (trans. by K. Cicellis), London 1996.

Rhea Galanaki, Ο αιώνας των λαβυρίνθων, Athens 1996.

Nikos Kazantzakis, The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel (transl. with introduction, synopsis, and notes by K. Friar), London 1958 (esp. Book 6, when Odysseus and Helen arrive on Crete).
(Note: I recently learned that Kazantzakis spelled his Odysey (Οδύσεια) with one “s” to differentiate it from Homer’s Odyssey.)


Antony Beevor, Crete: The Battle and the Resistance (1991)

W. Stanley Moss, Ill Met by Moonlight: The Abduction of General Kreipe (1950)

Dillys Powell, Villa Ariadne (1973)